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Author: Poluektov E. V. Roshchina Z. V.

BIOENGINEERING STRUCTURE MONITORING FOR REGULATING SNOWMELT RUNOFF

Topics: 06.01.02 Land Reclamation, Recultivation, and Land Protection

Abstract:

Purpose: to determine the erosion control efficiency and action time of the bioengineering complex, represented by a flow regulating forest belt in combination with the simplest hydraulic structures.
Materials and methods. The studies were carried out on the eroded slope soils in the south of the European territory of Russia with a system of soil protection measures represented by forest plantations, agricultural practices and the simplest hydraulic structures. The methods generally accepted in land and forest reclamation, erosion studies and agriculture were used.
Results. According to long-term observations (19782018), high erosion-preventing efficiency of dike-ditches in combination with forest belts was found. The flow-regulating role of the dike-ditches and their duration will depend on their location in the forest belt and the presence of soil-protective agrotechnical measures at the catchment, which should be represented by the contour-strip placement of agricultural crops and agricultural backgrounds, special agrotechnical techniques: on the fall with micro limans, dimples, intermittent furrows, on crops of winter crops and perennial grasses by soil slitting and moling. It ensures the snowmelt runoff retention with a layer of 5060 mm and regulates soil loss to the controlled values (0.31.0 t per ha per year). The removal of the contour-strip placement of crops and agricultural backgrounds, special agricultural techniques from the soil-protection system noticeably reduces the erosion-control effectiveness of the bioengineering complex.
Conclusions. The erosion control efficiency of the complex under consideration increases with the growth and development of trees: bulk density decreases to 1.051.15 grams per cubic centimeter, the number of water-resistant units increases to 5575 %, the permeability to 46 mm per min. The forest belt accumulates a significant part of the solid runoff, protecting the dikes-ditches from siltation, increasing the duration of their action. The most efficient placement of dikes-ditches is in the last row spacing of the forest belt.
Key words: flow regulating forest belt; dikes; ditches; snowmelt and rainwater runoff; soil loss.

DOI: 10.31774/2222-1816-2020-2-56-70




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