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Author: Shadskikh V. A. Kizhaeva V. Evg. Rasskazova O. L.

THE INFLUENCE OF BASIC TILLAGE METHODS ON AGROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DARK-CHESTNUT SOILS IN SARATOV TRANS-VOLGA REGION

Topics: 06.01.03 Agrophysics

Abstract:

The purpose of research is to study the influence of resource-saving tillage methods and their alternation for various crops in irrigated crop rotation on its agrophysical properties. The most important agrotechnical element of irrigated agriculture technological complex is the mechanical tillage, which ensures the optimization of chemical, water and air conditions of cultivated crops growth and, consequently, an increase in their productivity. Many years of field experiments (1993–2017) on optimal technologies development of the irrigated soils tillage were carried out in Saratov region on dark-chestnut medium-loamy soils during the four rotations of 6-field grain-fodder crop rotation, which included spring wheat with alfalfa underseeding, two fields of alfalfa, vico-oat grass mixture, winter wheat, silage corn. The experimental pattern included the study of the effect of moldboard different-depth plowing, subsurface and surface primary tillage on the soil agro-physical properties. The long-term use of subsurface and surface tillage did not lead to a significant compaction of the arable layer in comparison with plowing, however, in this 10–20 cm layer an increase in the density of the soil by 0.14–0.17 g/cm³ was noted. The greatest losses of the soil structure were observed in the upper layer of 0–10 cm. The subsurface tillage based on reduction of the mechanical impact provided better conservation of the water-resistant units in the upper horizon, rather than plowing with soil turnover. However, the constant use of this farm practice during the rotation of the crop rotation link led to a decrease of 1.1 % in the 0–10 cm layer of the fraction of agronomically valuable aggregates due to spraying and deflation. Therefore, to maintain the optimal agrophysical parameters of the arable horizon, it is necessary to alternate different types of tillage.

Key words: soil, fertility, tillage, moldboard plowing, subsurface tillage, surface tillage, agrophysical properties, soil density, agronomically valuable aggregates, soil water permeability. 

DOI: 10.31774/2222-1816-2019-3-123-135

For citation:
Shadskikh, V. A. The influence of basic tillage methods on agrophysical properties of dark-chestnut soils in Saratov Trans-Volga region / V. A. Shadskikh, V. E. Kizhaeva, O. L. Rasskazova // Scientific Journal of Russian Scientific Research Institute of Land Improvement Problems [Electronic resource]. – 2019. – 3. – P. 123–135. – Mode of access: http:www.rosniipm-sm.ru/en/archive?n=603&id=612. – DOI: 10.31774/2222-1816-2019-3-123-135.

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